Environmental pollution is the addition to the environment of any substance or energy from at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion,breakdown, recycling or storage in some harmless form. Pollution of the natural environment is a largely unintended and unwanted consequence of human activitities in manufacturing,agriculture ans waste disposal. High levels of pollution are largely a conssquence of
industrialization, urbanization and the rapid increase of human populations in modern times.
In acoustics noise is any undesired sound, either one that is intrinsically (internally) objectionable or one that interferes with other sounds that are being listened to. In ectronics and information theory, noise refers to those random, unpredictable and undesirable signals or changes in signals that mask (hide) the desired information content.
Pollutants (the substances that pollute the atmosphere) are either gases, finely divided solids, or finely dispersed (diffused) liquid aerosols. Of them air pollution is a particular problem in urban areas. Air pollution is reduced or controlled by various methods like redesigning engines, installing devices to control their exhaust emissions, and improvements in fuel and fuel additives.Pollutants can be removed or scrubbed from the gases emitted (issued)in industrial smoke stacks by electrostatic precipitation.
Water pollution includes the accumulation in oceans, lakes, streams an groundwater of substances that are either directly harmful to life or that have harmful secondary long-term effects. The principal sources of water pollution are sewerage, industrial waste, garbage and refuse and agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides The major sources of water pollution are untreated sewerage from cities and towns, chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
The domestic waste water in sewerage systems can be artificially treated and purified to remove its pollutants before the water is discharged back into the environment. Industrial waste water can likewise be purifes or else production methods at the plant can be changed to minimize the production of wastes of recycle them for further industrial use. Agricultural wastes an generally less concentrated and take longer to produce aggravating effects than industrial and municipal sewerage wastes originating in or near cities.
Land pollution mainly involves the deposition on land of solid wastes such as cans, bottles plastic containers, paper and used cars that cannot be broken down quickly or in some cases as a Aside from recycling disposal methods include concentrating such materials in landfil burning them in incinerators or dumping them in the ocean.
(11) WHAT LIEF MEANS TO ME
Human being living in any corner of the earth are indeed bound to face obstacle and troubles like poverty, , disease, war, unemplovement, injustice, etc. So it is not easy for us to pass an interesting life until and unless we are able to
satisfy all our needs and enjoy all the comforts or our modern computerized age. This means that we can achieve equanimity (peace of mind )only when we make our life interesting. Following are the ways to do so.
firstly we should curb (check) our instinct of pugnaciousness (quarrelsomeness) and replace it by our instinct of peacefulness. Life is certainly no more interesting in a battlefiled.so if we make our country a battlefield through uncompromising sectarian conflicts (Clasnes) or civil war or involvement in international war, then we shall certainly remain totally deprived of an interesting life. Hence (therefore) it becomes incumbent (inevitable) on our part to spread not war but peaceful co existance so that we may pass an interesting life.
Secondly, we should arrange to create all possible chances of making our progress in all possible directions. For that purpose none of us should in any case be illiterate Unfortunately in Pakistan we have a rate of illiteracy as high as 65%. This means that almost two thirds of our population cannot even read the Holy Quran although we got our country in 1947 in the name of Islam. We have forgotten that the very first verse of the Holy Quran says: Read in the name of Allah who created you. This means that we can make our life interesting only by following the Holy Quran’s injunction (order) of spreading literacy, education and professional skill.
Thirdly, our government should take all possible measures to raise us to that optimum (best) level of standard of life at which we may have enough resources to enable us to utilize wholesome (nourshing ) food to eat, hygienic water to drink, suitable clothes to wear, sifficient amount of pension to pass our old age, accessibility (nearness) to schools and colleges to educate our children and proper houses to live in.
Fourthly, we should get justice at every step. Our basic rights should not be violated (crushed) in any way whatsoever. This is possible if we are not subdued (subjected) to any type of political persecution (chastisement ) or economic exploitation (misuse) of social humiliation (degradation). It is certain that without taking such steps, we cannot make our life interesting.
Taking its origin from the Greek demos, “people” and kratos, “rule”. democracy literally means rule by the people”. The term has three basic senses in contemporary usag form of government in which the right to make political decisions is exercised directly by the whol body of citizens, acting under procedures of majority rule, usually know as direct democracy; (2) a form of government in which the citizens exercise the same right not in person but through representatives chosen by and responsible to them, known as representative democracy and (3) a form of government, usually a representative democracy, in which the powers of the majority are exercised within a framework of constitutional restraints designed to guarantee all citizens the enjoyment of certain individual or collective rights, such as freeedam of speech and religion, known as liberal or constitutional democracy.
Democracy had its beginnings in certain of the city-states of ancient Greece in which the whole citizen body formed the legislature. Such a system was possible because a city-state’s population rarely exeeded 10,000 people, and women and slaves had no political rights. Citizens were eligible for a variety of executive and judicial offices, some of which were filled by elections, while others were assigned by lot. There was no separation of powers and all officials were fully responsible to the popular assembly, which was qualified to act in executive and judicial were fully responsible to the popular assembly, which was qualified to act in executive and judicial as well as legislative matters. Greek democracy was a brief historical episode that had little direct influence on the development of modern democratic practices.
Modern concepts of democratic government were shaped to a large extent by ideas and institutions of medieval Europe. The European rulers sought (tried to find) approval of their policies including the right to levy taxes by consulting the different “estate, group, interests, in the realm (country). Gatherings of representatives of these interests were the origin of modern parliaments and legislative assemblies. The first document to notice such concepts and practices in Magna Carta of England, granted by King John in 1215. Also of fundamental importance is the emergence of concepts of political equality as seen from the two documents of this period: the American Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen.
In fact, the representative legislative bodies, freely elected under universal suffrage became in the 19th and 20th centuries the central instituions of democratic governments in many countries, democracy also came to imply (signify ) competition for office, freedom of speech and the press, and the rule of law. Numerous authoritarian and totalitarian states, notably the communist nations of the 20th century, have adopted outwardly democratic governments that nonetheless were dominated by a single authorized party without opposition.