7) THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE IN MODERN TIME
Science is not a master but a servant of man. It depends on man to use his tool positively or negatively. If he uses it in the appropriate manner, he benefits both himself and others, conversely (on the contrary) if he uses it inappropriately ( improperly) he will harm both himself and others. The worst misuse of science was witnessed for the first time in the world on August 6, 1945, when the first atom bomb was thrown by a U.S. fighter plane on Hiroshima (Japan), It was 10 feet long and weighed 9000 pounds. It undoubtedly burnt to ashes in the twinkling of an eye as many as 75,000 people which comes to 1/2 or at least 1/4th of the population of Hiroshima. One of Japan’s largest cities. The atomic bomb destroyed about 5 square miles (13 square kilometers) of Hiroshima. Between 70,000 and 100,000 people are estimated to have been killed by the bomb. Many other people died later from the effects of atomic radiation. Here man used his tool of science in the most destructive manner. Just after 3 days on August 9, 1945 man again made a wrong use of his scientific tool by throwing another atom bomb at Nagasaki. Since the man has been using science for destrucitve uses in warfare (as) through numberless (countries ) types of scientific weapons like tanks, rockets, missiles, etc..
The question arises, is science at fault or man? The answer is man. It is because science does not use man as its tool, rather it is man who uses science as his tool. He has been using it in both good and bad ways. His invention of steam engine and internal combusion engine after 1600 in England revolutionized the industrial and agricultural sectors of every country. They relieved (eased) man from the painful fatigue and monotony (boredomn) of pulling, pushing loading or unloading any burden. Now with these mechanical uses of science be is able to travel on land, sea and air at unbelieveable speed.
Man has used science in inventing electricity as the motive power of any light or heavy machinery or plant. The use of electricity though electronic appliance like computers, radars, remote controls, radio waves, dish antenna, satellite links and portable wireless telecommiuncation media has turned man’s earth into paradise. The door of our room is closed and we still enjoy a wireless talk with the man or woman sitting in the other corner of the earth. Such are the benefits of the progress of science in modern times in the service of mankind.
(8) THE IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA ON EVERYDAY LIFE
Mass communication media are the different channels like films, magazines periodicals, newspapers, radio, television etc. through which Information is transmitted (sents) to the public of them television is the most common in the current new millennium (21st century) It is a system of sending and receiving picutres and sound by means of electronic signals transmitted through wires and optical fibres or by electromagnetic radiation . Television is the most important electronic medium of mass communication bringing news and entertainment programmes to millions of households wolrwide. It was the first medium to relay (transmit ) via (through) communication satellites picutres across continents. It has a powerful influence on public opinion by presenting news and views about current affairs, TV is also a major means for advertising products.
Newspaper is not bought by every house in a poor country, but almost every home there has a television set and people spend on the average three hours a day watching TV. So as a mass electronic medium, TV reaches more eyes than the newspaper. Television has tofa great extent replaced much of the time spent in reading periodicals and newspapers as seeing a picture is easier than reading a paper. Thanks to German engineer Paul who designed a TV scanning disc in 1884. By 1926 Scottish engineer John Logie Baird had invented a television system that transmitted moving images (figures ) at a frequency of ten images per second. The first public television broadcast in the United Kingdom was made by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1927. Television broadcasting on a regular service basis began in 1936.
Till the invention of the television, radio was the strongest channel of mass communication. Marconi (1874-1937), Italian engineer, is famous for inventions in radio-signalling. In 1895 he developed an appliance (apparatus) with which he sent signals to a point a few kilometers away. In 1901 he communicated signals across the Atlantic Ocean between England and Newfoundland, Canada. It is then obvious ( evident) that before the invention of radio, the newspaper was indeed the only powerful .. channel (medium) of mass communication.
The role of mass electronic media in society is both constructive and destructive. If they propagate war, even if cold war, they are certainly ruinous for society. If they propagate peace, even if temporary, they are certainly beneficial for society.
(9) OUR EDUCATION SYSTEM NEEDS IMPROVEMENT
It will not be an exaggeration to say that our education system has produced mass unemployed and moral corruption . We find even a large number of doctors and engineers sitting unemployed in their house.some of them have been found guilty of crimes like smuggling, rape even think of committing any crime, if after so many years of our national life since the inception Of our country in 1947. our name is included in the inernational list of terrorists .It is definitely the fault of our education system This is enough to prove that our education system needs improvement.
Has our education system produced a Pakistani culture? certainly not. The eduction sytems of other countries have produced their national cultures. The Roman culture and the Greek culture, for example, emerged from the education systems of Italy and, Greece respectively . These two civilizations failed only when their education systems failed. Since 1947, we have aş, yet been waiting for the emergence of “Pakistani culture and it is still our unrealizable dream. If our education systems had been well-planned, we could have realized our dream. This phenomenon (occurance ) again proves that our education system needs improvements.
Which university hostel in Paksitan is not an abode of subversive (destructive) elements? Just look at the newspapers of this month and you will find university and college students sought by the police on charges or murder, robbery, terrorism, etc. One more question to you. Why has the government been banning elections of students’ unions since 1977, the year of imposition (enforcement ) of Zia ul Haq’s martial law?. Is this a small period? Certainly not. The fault lies not in the students’ unions but in our education system which has not produced students detached from political and religious parties which on their part have not yet let democracy function smoothly in our homeland . This prolonged ban on students’ unions again proves that our education system needs improvement.