Summary air travel |The wolves of cernogratz|English summary online


Summary air travel ,The wolves of cernogratz,English summary online


Air travel has become very popular and common in these days. Wright brothers of U.S.A are the first person to fly in heavier than air machines. Since than great improvements have taken place in flying. The invention of Radar has made air travel quite safe but the developments of Jet Propulsion had made it very fast.


Air travel is common today as bus or train travel was in the past through people with much money can make use of it easily. Like many other geat inventions and scientific developments it is much connected with war preparation . The fast planes used in the great wars later came into civilian use. The history of air travel and of aeroplanes is both interesting and exciting.
The first man to fly was Pilarte de Rozier, a Frenchman. He went up in a hot air ballon in 1873. Ten days after him, two other Frenchmen flew in a balloon filled with hydrogen.
Later Giffard, a Frenchman, utilized a steam motor in a carrier in 1882. His airship was lighter than air. Its speed was 5 miles an hours and it was disturbed by the moving air. In 1884, the French engineers, Renard and Kerbs, flew an air ship by an electric motor at a speed of thirteen miles an hour.
Otto, a German, invented the internal combustion engine inside which the fire burns that is used in the cars. At first coal gas, and then petrol, was used in it. Germany used this petrol engine in air ships that bombed London during the First World War. In the nineteen thirties . different countries stopped using the airhip after several accidents.
Afterwards, Langley and the Wright brothers in America used the petrol engine in aeroplanes. Aeroplanes were heavier than air. Bleriot, a frenchman, flew his aeroplane across the English Channel in 1909. Still, the aeroplane was not safe and much useful.
Aeroplanes (aircraft) were used for rconnaissance inspection of enemy position). The fighter plane was built to shoot down the reconnaissance of other planes of the enemy. The fighter planes fly at great heights and at high speeds. Thus, Germany and other countries started using the aeroplanes for bombing and fighting in the air. Later, large planes were built to carry passangers, mail, and things. After the First World War, regular air services began between London and Paris and across the Atlantic.
Later Jet motors come to be utilized in planes. Planes, then could travel at high speeds over 4000 miles without stopping. The fighter aeroplanes can now fly at over 3000 miles an hour, more than the speed of sound (at supersonic speeds). The radar was used to guide aeroplanes in all kinds of weather. Both the radar and the jet engines were invented during the Second World War.



This is an interesting story about supernatural forces and strange happenings written by Saki H.H Munro. The author is well known for his tales of mysters and magical powers. The story is about an old castle and its owners, the Cernogratz family who had to sell off their family castle, when their fortune turned against them.Thus they abandoned their ancestral family castle. As time went by, the castle was purchased by Gruebel family.


The present story is like the tales of olden times whose heroes and heroines lived as long as certain birds or animals lived in cages or in the open. Sometimes their lives came to an end when a certain change in nature took place like an earthquake or eclipse of the sun or moon or even when animals and birds started behaving unusually as it happens here.
An old woman, Amalie, worked as a servant in the castle of Conrad, a Hamburg merchant. and his sister, Gruebel, the Baroness. Amalie had also been a governess, teaching the children or rich persons. Conrad and the Baroness were talking about a legend (old story) about their catle. The Baroness told Conrad that people said that when anyone died in the castle, all the dogs in the village and the Wild beasts in the forest howled all night long. She said that it was the false story as no howling was heard the previous year when the old mother in law died.
Amalie the old Governess, at once said that the howling was heard only when a member of Cernogratz family died in the castle. She said that, before the death of the person; wolves came from far and new and howled in the forest. Dogs around the castle also barked in fear and anger at the noise of the wolves. She also said that when the soul of the dying person left his body a tree would crash down in the park. She claimed that she was a Cernogratz herself. When she became very poor she changed her name as she had to teach children for money. The Baroness and her brother did not believe her.
Just before the new year, Amalie fell seriously ill . Dogs around the castle began barking . They were barking in fear and anger at the wolves howling in the distance. Before the Baroness could call the doctor for Amalie, a tree crashed in the park. Amalie had died. The noise of the animals and the breaking of the tree at Amalie’s death proved that the Cernogratz legend was true. The newspaper also published the news that Amalie, a Cernogratz family, had died.
It is quite an unbelieveable story and very few people in our scientific age would connect the life and death of a person with the behaviour of animals and crashing of trees, but it is interestingly suspenseful.



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