Summary of birkenhead drill|science scientists |english summary writing


Summary of birkenhead drill,science scientists ,english summary writing


Birkenhead Drill is a story of extravagant deed of heroism and shvarism shown by the are of British Army. The Birkenhead Drill was a troop ship, which come acress
with sudden accident, which has brought a dramatic change in the life of soldiers, Birkenhead drill means Women and Children First is the order followed on all ships that are in danger Birkenhead Drill means women in children first is the order followed on all ships are in danger Birkenhead Drill means today to stand be still facing certain death so that the weaker ones may have a chance of life
“Some people born great
Some people have greatness
Some people achieve greatness
We should make our life’s sublime


The present story is about the unusual (extraordinary) bravery and disciplineof English troops voyaging (travelling by sea) to South Africa in February 1851. Most of the young soldiers are on the board of the ship. “Birkenhead” readily and devotedly sacrificed their lives to save women and children travelling with them. This is perhaps the most glorious event in world navigational history (of sea travel) . The “Birkenhead” was a troopship that was on its way to South Africa. It was carrying young soldiers and their families. There were 630 people on the ship out of which 170 were women and children.
The ship struck a hidden rock in the sea near Cape Town, the capital of South Africa. Within the minutes of the crash the ship broke (split) into two parts. The people came out of their cabins, and with great difficulty reach the back part of the broken ship. The front half soon sank into the sea, but the back part continued floating. Most of lifeboats also got destroyed. Now the passengers, who were 630 in all, could only be saved on the lifeboats that could carry only 180 of them. Any passenger who could not find a place in the lifeboats faced certain death by drowning or at the hands of shark (large fish) that were all around ready to eat him up.
There was no disorder and rush (panic) on the ship as the soldiers showed great discipline. They did not run or push others aside to get on the lifeboats as people on ship in danger had done earlier. The commander of the soldiers ordered them, “Women and children first”. Thus, women and children and very few other were to be saved in the lifeboats. So, line upon line of red-coated soldiers with set (serious) faces stood in their ranks calmly ,awaiting (waiting for) their “fate”. The lifeboats were lowered and the women and children and some others (the youngest among the soldiers) were placed on the boats. The captain of the ship, its workers and the soldiers kept standing on it until it sank into the water.
were placed on the boats. Only a few of the struggling soldiers could come up to the surface .

They held on the broken pieces of the destroyed ship (the wreckage) until a rescue ship picked them up. In all 436 men “went down for ever”. The Commander of the soldiers was holding a piece of the ship and was swimming with its help. He pushed this piece to two young soldiers who were trying to save their lives in the sea. When he found that the piece could not support all three. he let go his hold and sank into the sea”. It was a heroic action of the highest order.

“Birkenhead Drill” means “women and children first”. This is the “order of the day” on all sinking ships. When a ship is in danger, weaker and younger people are to be saved first. Others, older and stronger people, should stand still, like the soldiers on the “Birkenhead”, ready to die. There should be perfect discipline, and no panic (disorder) at all.
Moral: The undiminished order of the soldiers presented in the article reflects the quality of sacrifices and devotion in mankind. We should stand still facing certain fate so that the weak ones may have a chance to live. This has been known as Birkenhead Drill since then, “Duty. That which sternly impels us in the direction of profit, along the line of desire.”



In this article the author tells us “What is science”. Generally speaking science is not only a collection of ideas but also the rules & laws. It is, therefore, the duty of a scientist to make experiments in order to achieve the truth.


Science is an original body of knowledge concerning (about) the physical world, both animals and dead matter. It deals with the knowledge and composition of animal bodies and material objects. The scientific method is used to arrive at conclusions in this connection. Science is a collection of facts expressed in such an exact way that we can easily test their truth. Secondly, science is a collection of rules or laws that explain the connection between these facts, we establish scientific rules or laws. After much experimentation, we test the truth of a statement again. When we prove it to be truth we say that it is a scientific fact. We may use scientific instruments to test and prove statements or ideas. Thus, we have collections of scientific rules in the sciences like chemistry, physics, astronomy and biology. A scientist tries to study facts exactly. He does not have any prejudice .

He does not let his personal ideas affect his work. His scientific work is objective and exact. That is why chemistry and physics are science. But politics, history, art and religion are not sciences. We cannot be exact and objective in these and cannot test our ideas accurately through experiments.
In the scientific method, first of all, information or date is gathered by careful observations. On the basis of this information a basic generalization or hypothesis is formed Secondly, the hypothesis is tested by further observation and experiments. If the hypothesis meets all these tests it becomes a scientific law. Newton’s laws of motion, in this sense, passed through all these stages of observation and experimentation before being taken as laws.

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