This essay sheds light upon the struggle of the Muslims of South Asia to achieve a land of their own. It traces the history of the efforts made by the Muslims during the period ranging from the adoption of the Pakistan Resolution in March 1940 till the final freedom and setting up of a sovereign homeland in August 1947. The first section of the essay describes the arrival of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah at Karachi on 7th August 1947. When he was accorded a warm enthusiastic welcome by the people and when he outlined the basis beliefs and principles of the people of Pakistan, laying stress upon the equality of all Paksitanis irrespective of relegion, càsts, colour or creed . Then the essay points out to the main difference between the Congress and the Muslim League, between the view points of Gandhi and Jinnah, and their ultimate outcome in the shape of the two-nation theory becoming a reality . The concluding part of the essay deals with the problems facing the new nation of Pakistan in its initial years which incidentally proved to be the final year in the life of the father of nation.
On 14th August 1947 a vast, excited crowd had gathered at the Mauripur Airport Karachi to welcome Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder and the first Governor General of their new state Pakistan. As soon as he appeared the whole crowd cried out with one voice “Pakistan Zindabad”, and every men pushed forward to welcome him, to get as close to him as possible to see him clearly . As he drove through the great sea of the people that streched from the airport to the city, through all the cheers and tears of joy and the never ceasing cries of Pakistan Zindabad he gave no sign of his feelings . Perhaps he was thinking of those millions of Muslims who were being attached or killed on the roads and railways as they triedy to reach their homeland. It was only on the Independence Day that he went to the balcony of the Government House and smiled for a moment at the cheering crowd in the streets outside.
A few days later, the Quaid-e-Azam told his people that there was complete rengious freedom in the country for everyone. He told them “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste. We are all equal citizens of one State.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, a Cambridge student. invented “Pakistan” in 1933. The word “Pakistan” is composed of eight letters, all taken from the names of different parts of our homeland,’p’ for the Punjab, ‘A’ for Afganistan (North West Frontier Province). ‘K’ for Kashmir, ‘S’ for Sindh, and “Tan” for Balochistan. It means the land of the Pak’s the spiritually pure and clean peoples.
In March 1940, the Muslim league adopted it at a historic meeting in Lahore. The Muslims demanded a separate homeland in the sub-continent. The Indian newspapers called this the “Pakistan Resolution”.
Quaid-e-Azam took this idea to the people. He travelled from one place to another place speaking to huge public meetings. He even found time to start a newspaper “Dawn” the Muslims welcomed a paper of their own. Quaid-e-Azam said that India must be two nations, not one .The hindu leader gandhi refused to accept that. After the Second World War there were several meetings and discussions for the final settlement but they all failed to bring about an agreement between the two (Quaid-e-Azam and the Hindu Leader Gandhi). In March 1947 Britain sent Lord Mount Batten to India as the last Viceroy. He decided that at once, India must be divided into two states. He announced that the British would leave India by 15th August 1947. The Congress and the Muslim League both agreed to the plan. Sindh, the North-west Frontier Province, Balochistan, the West Punjab and the East Bengal were included in Pakistan. Atlast Pakistan and India came into being as two nations, separate states. Pakistan came into being on 14th August 1947.
Quaid-e-Azam left his people on 11th September 1948. He was a great leader. He own Pakistan by his irrefutable arguments . He was bold frank and upright .He was a man of calm and quiet temperament. He seldom expressed his feelings of sorrow or joys on his face. His message to the nation was “Unity, Faith and Discipline”
SUMMARY OF BY CAR ACROSS EUROPE
In this article the writer tells us that the English peoples love a life of adventures. They like to spend their summer holidays on the Continent of Europe. Every one who can afford to spare time and money goes to visit Europe. The
The article deals with the adventures of the couple Roger & Sheela.
The English people are very fond of adventures. Every year a large number of them spent their vacations on the Continent of Europe. Those visit Europe mostly desire to travel over the continent in a car. It is so because car journey affords them a chance to visit country after coun at ease and to observe (US) the different societies from close quarters. Roger and sheila Was a young married English couple, and they travelled in their car from London
to capri enjoying their entire journey.
First Roger and Sheila went from London to Dover by car. From there they went to France by sea. Then they started by car towards Belgium. Now Roger had to drive on the right side of the road. They stopped for sometime at the frontier. At Brussels in Belgium, they stayed at a decen hotel for a night .
From Belgium they started in their car towards Italy where they wanted to stay longe! Driving through the hills of the Ardennes in the south, they reached Luxembourg. After passin through Germany they entered Switzerland. They decided to rest for a day there.
They reached Venice in Italy that Sheila very much desired to see. Finally, they reach Capri where they stayed in a hotel. Now they were enjoying this beautiful Island of de Mediterranean. This journey was all quite smooth except for one puncture on the way. Finally in satisfaction they were sitting on the terrace of heir hotel in Capri.