This article tells us about the United Nations background, organization & specialized agencies of the United Nations.
It was after the Second World War in 1945 that the United States of America, Britain and Russia (the Soviet Union) decided to form the United Nations Organization. Was to have two major bodies, the General Assembly and the Security Council. All member nations (most countries) were to be represented in the General Assembly. The Security Council was to have five permanent members, that is the USA Britain, France, Russia and China. There were to be six other members elected for two year terms by members of the General Assembly. The U.N.O was formed to bring peace happiness and prosperity to the world. It was formed at the end of the Second World War.
The main aim of the United Nations is no doubt to solve the problems of war and to bring peace . But it has other aims too. It tries to remove poverty , ignorance, disease and injustice . These evils cause wars. The U.N.O thus tries to remove the causes of wars. Its aim is to remove political and social injustice and to help nations to co-operate each others.
The U.N.O has not very much suceeded in bringing peace and in removing wars. There are many disputes among the nations that, it has not been able to resolve (deal with successfully). For example, it has not suceeded in resolving the Kashmir and Palestine problems. However, it has succeeded in bringing war to an end in some cases, for example in Korea several years ago. The U.N.O provides a good chance to the member nations to discuss their problems in order to solve them. They discuss them freely in the General Assembly. The Security Council takes important decision about political, economic and military matters. But there five permanent members here can veto or reject them.
The U.N.O has very well tried to fight social evils. Its specialized agencies like the WHO (World Health Organization) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) have helped in removing disease and in improving agriculture closer and has worked for their progress. It can be more useful if all big powers to obey its decisions.
The U.N.O has no doubt helped its members to discuss problems in its sessions. It has stopped them in going to war several times, for example, the USA and Russia in 1962 over the missile dispute in Cuba, Greece and Turkey in the 1990s in Cyprus. But it has failed to solve mojor problems like those between Pakistan and India over Kashmir and between Arabs and Israel over Palestine. The success of the U.N.O now depends on its ability to treat the strong and weak countries a like (in the same way).
SUMMARY OF SCIENCE AND SOCIETY
In this article the writer describes the remarkable progress which science has made until now.
The scientific progress of our times is due to the scientific attitude of mind and the scientific
method. This essay explains the main features of science in this connection. The main feature of science is the scientific attitude of mind. It means using one’s mind without prejudice. Scientists living in different countries study the same physical facts. They have na religious or political prejudices while doing their scientific work.
The second main feature is the use of a large number of scientific instruments for observation and measurement. These instruments , like the telescope and prism, help scientists to calculate and measure accurately. The third main feature of science is an increasin use of mathematics. It means a much greater use of figures, calculations, mathematical formula equations and other methods and ways involving statistics and mathematical sciences. Everven now knows and most of the people use calculators, computers and many other modern machinesis laboratories and outside for mathematical work.
Man has much succeeded in solving his scientific problems but he has failed to solve many of his social and political problems. Science is helping us to remove disease and poverty. We can solve many of our social, political and economical problems too we use scientific method. We should be objective like the scientist while solving them. We a search for, try find or get at, truth and facts like the scientists.
Science has some limitations . It cannot tell us about happiness, love and friendship Science has to do with those things that can be weighted, measured or treated physically. Subjects like history, civics, economics etc. tell us about social and personal problems. So we should study them side by side with the science. We should use scientific principles in the solution of our social problems as far as possible. We should try to understand the cause of our problems like poverty, unemployment and terrorism through careful and unprejudiced observation of our society and people. We should make lists and gather figures from the different parts of one society for the solution of these problems. If we act without prejudice and without favouring any party or person, we may be able to find practical solutions to them.